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Category : Computer Networks

FAQId : 52519
Subject : network neighborhood

Question : I have 2 computers networked by a netgear 10/100 hub, and 2 netgear 100mb cards. One machine is a win 98, and the other is a 95.
In network neighborhood, the 98 machine see's both computers. The 95 machines only see's itself. They are both configured with the same protocols.
If I go to the identification tab and change both computer name and workgroup on both machines and restart, both computers will see each other, and file and resource sharing works like it is supposed to. But when I restart/reboot the 98 machine and go into network neighborhood the 98 machine still see's both computers, and the 95 only see's itself. I can go through and change the Identifications of both computers, and they can see each other again.
Here is the trouble shooting allready done:
changed protocols
swapped nic cards
tried every port on the hub
swapped twisted pair cables
swapped to different PCI slots
reinstalled nic drivers
reinstalled operating systems
updated nic drivers
All with no different results. Ive even taken the 95 machine and hooked it up on a friends network with no problems, which makes me think that the 98 machine is where the problem is.
Ive had the network set up for around 3 months, and havent been able to figure this one out. Any help is greatly appreciated.
Thanks, Jeff

Answer : Man you've run the gamut on this one! Only problem is, I believe you've run into one of the more kludgy aspects of the Windows peer-to-peer networking scheme. Namely that of browse masters. In a Windows world every machine has the potential to be a "browse master" which is the machine that controls what everyone else sees in their Network Neighborhood. If more than one machine is set to be the broswe master (or even set to be a potential one - the default) an election can be forced to determine which will become the broswe master. By default a Windows 95/98 machine gets a vote (of low value - usually "1") while an NT Server gets a high vote (I believe a "16"). thus in a network with an NT Server the master browser will always be the NT Server unless steps are taken to make it not so. There are two things you can do to stop this behavior:

1) You can disable the ability for the 95 machine to *ever* be a browse master, thereby relegating it to the status of a browser client.

Here's how:
a) Right-click on Network Neighborhood and choose Properties.
b) Double-click File and Print Sharing for Microsoft Networks.
c) Select Browse Master and choose Disabled using the drop down list on the right. Click OK to exit this window, and OK to exit the main Network window.
d) Choose YES when asked if you would like to reboot.

2) You can ignore this and share the root of each drive (share C:\ as "C", D:\ as "D", and so on) then go to your Network Neighborhood and in the address field at the top type "\\Win95machine_name" and hit ENTER at which point you should get connected to the machine whether it appears in the NN or not. When it does go to each of it's drives or other shares and right-click each in turn and map them to a drive letter on this machine *selecting reconnect at logon* so each time this machine comes up it will connect that share to that drive letter without a visit to the Network Neighborhood. This is the best method as you will always have access to the other machines shares by letter and will soon learn which letter goes with which share (rather than have to go to NN every time and map it then). I would still recommend that you set one machine to be Browse Master (say the 98 machine) and the other to be disabled for BM ability.

Paul Doherty, CNA (3 & 4), CNE (4), MCP+I, MCSE, B.A.Sc.
Rating :
Rating : I fought with a network problem for 3 months, and in 47 minutes I got and answer to my problem that solved it in seconds! Thank you very much Paul!

FAQId : 1248609
Subject : want to set up network.

Question : Hi.

I have two computer at home and I will like to communicating these two computer each other.
Would you tell me the procedural for set up the network?
Is there any web site show this procedural?

Thank you.

Answer : Obtain an ethernet card for each PC and one Ethernet hub (or switch). Install one card into each PC and assign each of them the following info:

PC #1
IP address -
Subnet Mask -
Default Gateway (leave blank)
DNS (leave blank)

PC #2
IP address -
Subnet Mask -
Default Gateway (leave blank)
DNS (leave blank)

This will get the PCs talking. Now make sure each is in the same "workgroup" by entering the Network control panel, under the Identification tab and put a name there (make it the same on each). Then turn on file and print sharing from the Configuration tab, button at the bottom. Finally make one machine the browse master and disable the other as follows:

On PC #1 open Network control panel and double-click on "File and print sharing for Microsoft Networks" and in the choices that pop up select "Browse Master" at the left and choose "diabled" at the right. On the other machine go to the same screen but choose "enabled". Reboot both machines and then open the Network Neighborhood from the desktop and see if you can see the other computers name. If you can't don;t despair (it takes several minutes sometimes for the browse mastering to sync up) type in the address field of Network Neighborhood:


and hit ENTER to see the contents of that machine. Since you haven't shared anything yet you probably won't see anything but if it opens at all your network is working. Now share some things - open My Computer and your C: drive. Find a directory in there you'd like to make available and right-click it and select "Share" to set it up for access by the other machine. You can do the same with printers so you can both print to one printer that is connected to only one of the machines.

Have fun!

Paul Doherty, CNA, CNE, MCP+I, MCSE, B.A.

Answer : Don't forget to rate the answers you receive on AskMe.com
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FAQId : 3468196
Subject : Networking Windows NT, Win. '98, and Win. '95

Question : Thanks Paul. Trying to follow up on the Win. '95, '98, and NT networking. Here's the situation now. When I try to access a NT Computer from a "95, I get " you must supply a password to make this connection" resource:\\name of computer\ipc$. Nothing I type for a password works. I can access the '95 computer from NT with no problem. All are in the same workgroup using client for micosoft network, with netbuei and tcp\ip protocols.


Answer : Unless you have an NT Server and are using it as a PDC (Primary Domain Controller) you need to set all machines to be using "Share-level" access control to resources. On the 95 and 98 boxes set this as follows:

right-click Network Neighborhood and select Properties

select the Access Control tab and check the top option, Share-level.

Now to access a resource (shared C:\ drive) named CDRIVE on the 95 machine from the 98:

Open the Network Neighborhood and in the address field type:


and hit ENTER.

Paul Doherty

Answer : You need a user account/password on the NT machine that is the same as the user and password you used to log into the 95/98 machine. I think this may be your issue...

Paul Doherty

Answer : OK... good luck.

Paul Doherty

Rating :

FUQuestion : I'll check that. For some reason, the Win. '95,'98 machines can access 1 out of the three NT machines with no prob. but are still prompted for a password with the other two. All user acounts are setup the same, and when I type in the password when prompted, it says it's incorrect.I don't understand why it shows the path at the password prompt \ipc$ after the name of computer. I believe I have them all set up the same, but I'll double check.

FUQuestion : O.K. I got that, but the problem is accessing a NT machine from a '95 or '98 machine which I do have set to Share-Level access. The NT machines can access a '95 or '98 machine fine. I hope I'm being specific enough.


FAQId : 4469178
Subject : hub, but what next

Question : Hello. I have a situation at hand. It is the following:

1) I currently have 3 computers (Computer A, Computer B, and Computer C).

2) I have an Ethernet Card for each of the three computers.

3) I have enough RJ-45 cables to connect them together.

4) I just bought a hub to network them together, but I'm not sure how I should do that.

5) Computer A is the one with the "internet connection." That is, it is the host of the internet for the other two computers.

6) The hub I have is the 10Base-T Ethernet Hub. It has 5 RJ-45 jacks in the back.

7) Four of the ports are labeled TP4,TP3,TP2,TP1. The last port is labeled Uplink.

How should I make the RJ-45 cable connections so that I can network all three computers together and also allow the Computer A to share the internet connection for the other two computers via a proxy server? Thanks very much!

Kenneth S. Kwan

Answer : If the machine with the internet connection connects with a modem you are all set if you have one of the following operating systems installed on it:

Windows 98SE
Millenium Edition (ME)
Windows 2000

All three of these have a feature called ICS (Internet Connection Sharing) - it is the feature that allows that machine to share its connection with the others. Get it installed and configured as your first step. We'll call this machine 'PC #1'.

Plug all three machines into ports on the hub (don't use the uplink port for now - it allows you to "cascade" to another hub if your outgrow this one - there is a button that turns it into a normal port too so if end up having to use it you can).

Assign the PCs the following information after you get the OS on them and the network card is installed:

PC #1

IP Address -
Subnet Mask -
Default Gateway - leave blank
DNS Servers - Put in the addresses supplied by your ISP

PC #2

IP Address -
Subnet Mask -
Default Gateway -
DNS Servers - Put in the addresses supplied by your ISP

PC #1

IP Address -
Subnet Mask -
Default Gateway -
DNS Servers - Put in the addresses supplied by your ISP

Make sure each machine is in the same workgroup - under the Identification tab of the Network control panel. This way you can also share files and printers on the network. For clean access to the Network Neighborhood make one machine the browse master and disable that ability on the other machines. To do both tasks you will need to add the "File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks", then double-click it in the list and set PC #1 as enabled for browse master and the others as disabled.

Reboot all the machines and test from PC #1 that you can hit the internet (try a web browser). Then go to one of the other machines and try this from a DOS prompt (Start/Programs/MS-DOS Prompt):

(should show replies, not timeouts)
ping www.cnet.com
(reply may or may not be received, but the first line should be like the next line)

Pinging home.cnet.com [] with 32 bytes of data:

If you see the line above then everything is good, since you properly resolved "www.cnet.com" into its IP address which means you got past your default gateway and on to the ISP's DNS servers.

That should get you hopping!
Paul Doherty
Home of DOS/Windows Utilities

Rating :
Rating :

FAQId : 4714738
Subject : Data transmission

Question : What do you advice for secured files transmissions? SSH? And with which softwares?

Answer : Yes, ssh (Secure Shell) is a good way to accomplish secure communications. I use it for:

*slogin* - a replacement for telnet (can disable telnet after you get it configured)

*scp* - secure file copying (faster than FTP and secure - can show progress too)

*sexec* - secure remote execution (replaces rexec) of executables on another machine


If you need a copy of ssh consult this FAQ for download locations for the source code:


Paul Doherty
Home of DOS/Windows Utilities

FAQId : 4992556
Subject : subnet

Question : hi,

if I have an IP address C class , for example, and I want to subnet this class into 15 networks.

what i did
-- the class
-- masck

what about each network out of the 15th networks.

network one:

-- the mask 255.255.240
-- the first IP address in that network
-- the second ip addr.

and so on

thank you

Answer : You're welcome.

There doesn't seem to be any additional info needed, but if you need further clarification please ask.

Paul Doherty
DOS/Windows Utilities

Answer : Network -
Mask -

This means that the fourth octet looks like this:


For the purposes of subnetting you are reserving the first four bits for extending the network, and the last four for hosts.

So for example if I assign an address to a host of:

The fourth octet here (35) corresponds to this bit pattern:


If I break that up and examine the network and host pieces separately:

0010 0011

you can now see that this is the "32" subnetwork, host number "3". For any other machine to be considered to be on the same subnet as this machine the binary representation of it's address (the first four bits) must be identical to the one above. So this subnet's addresses would range from:

0010 0001


0010 1110 (broadcast address would be 1111 at the end)

Which translates to a range of:

33 - 46

14 hosts available (the full 16 minus the unusable "0" and "255" host addresses) in this "32" subnetwork.

So for each possible combination of the first four bits (some of which are - 16, 32, 96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 192) you can find the range of hosts by locking the first four bits and then doing what I did above to determine the range of addresses.

Paul Doherty
Home of DOS/Windows Utilities

Rating :

FUQuestion : hi,
the the first subnet:

0001 0001 to 0001 1110

the second
0010 0001 to 0010 1110

the third
0011 0001 to 0011 1110

thank you and my best wishes

FAQId : 5157025
Subject : bat files

Question : how do you create a directory from a user's input using a bat file

Answer : One way is to make the BAT file handle user-supplied parameters. Like this:

my_md.bat dirtocreate

Then within the BAT file you can access the user parameter "dirtocreate" as variable %1:

@echo off
if '%1' == '' goto syntax
md %1
echo Directory %1 created!
goto end
echo To use, type my_md dir
echo where "dir" is the directory you want to make

More on this topic:


Paul Doherty
DOS/Windows Utilities

Rating : thanks for your response

FAQId : 6809061
Subject : hub and switch

Question : Dear Sir/Madam,
Can you please tell me if I have a say 16 ports hub and 16 ports switch what will be bandwidth on each port for hub and switch?
I am facing this question in every interview.
Please give a short explanation aswell.
Thanks in advance.

Answer : It's quite simple, so chin up and prepare to ace your next interview!

Hubs come in generally two speed - 10 Mb and 100Mb

Switches also come in those speeds.

Hubs, however SHARE that one bandwidth lmit with ALL ports. So a 16-port hub would have, say 100Mb of bandwidth to share amongst all 16 ports. So at best each person plugged into a port would get 1/16 of 100Mb (6.25 Mb). But in actuality they'll get even less if there is much traffic occurring due to a hub's other limitation - collisions. Since every packet that enters a hub is ALSO echoed out in real-time to all other ports (since a hub is ignorant of what machines lie where) there is a possibility for collisions. Collisions are where two machines transmit at the same time (both having heard "silence" on the line beforehand and thinking it was safe to "speak" - this is the "carrier sense" of CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense, Multiple Access with Collision Detect). A collision loses bandwidth because now both machines detect the collision and will now have to retransmit their packets. Since there is no timing device they wait a random interval before attempting to send again. I think you can see that with two machines this isn't so bad, but with 16 at once collisions can get pretty high.

Now contrast all of that with a switch. One of the principal differences between a switch and a hub is that a switch isolates each port into it's own broadcast domain so collisions cannot occur with other machines (most times they are also full-duplex, meaning you can send and receive at the same time). This alone speeds things up considerably. But a switch has another benefit - in addition to isolating machines it also provides dedicated bandwidth to each port, so a 100Mb 16-port switch will have 16 ports of 100Mb of dedicated bandwidth each for a total of 1.6 Gb of bandwidth! When you hear people refer to "backplane bandwidth" that is the amount of speed the internals of the switch can deal with (i.e. "all ports active at once").

So there you have it, a hub shares all of it's bandwidth, while a switch has dedicated speed of the full amount for each port. A hub provides no insulation for traffic from each port, which results in collisions that eat at it's already limited bandwidth, while switches isolate each port for protection fro collisions. Switches, therefore, are hip to MAC addresses (the addresses burned into Ethernet cards) since it will not replicate every packet coming in to every other machine on the network, only to the machine it is bound for. This means that when a new machine is introduced to a switch the switch now knows that MAC XXXXXXXX is on port 12 and any Ethernet traffic bound for that MAC address is sent there only, rather than the shotgun approach of a hub where every machine hears every broadcast.

I hope this has helped your understanding of the differences between hubs and switches.

Paul Doherty
DOS/Windows Utilities

Rating :

FAQId : 7412691
Subject : Window 3.1 connected Window NT

Question : Hi pauldoherty,

I am a mechanical engineering student. I am doing a project which deliever an experiment on the Internet. However, I have to connect from a 386 computer running Window 3.1 to a newly ordered server, which would run on NT. As a result, could give me advice on how to connect this two machine effectly. It is because during experiment large amount of data would be transmitted and then go into the Internet.

Thank you very much.

Answer : I have a really old utility I've made available for you on my website. It's called XPORT.EXE and is used between two machines in DOS. You'll need to connect both machines with a null-modem serial cable and then run XPORT.EXE on both machines. It's very easy to use and you can transfer whatever data you need from one machine to the other. The best way to do this would be to:

1) Collect all the data on the machine that has the data to be moved into one large zip file. If the machine is the Windows 3.1 box and you have no internet access for it go and download a copy of pkzip.exe with your other machine and copy it to a floppy to move to the 3.1 machine. Once it's there use the following syntax to zip up a directory:

cd \directory\to\be\zipped
pkzip -pr c:\backup.zip *.*

Afterwards you will use XPORT.EXE to simply copy the backup.zip file to the other machine where you will use WinZip (http://www.winzip.com) to extract the original files and directories.

You can get pkzip.exe here:


and get XPORT.EXE from my site here:


Finally you can order a null-modem serial cable here:


(press CTRL-F and search for "null" without the quotes - be sure to get the ends to match the serial ports of both machines - DB-9 pin or DB-25 pin will be the ends based on the PC type).

Paul Doherty
DOS/Windows Utilities

Answer : Xport needs to be run at a DOS prompt, not in Windows. Also the way xport works is to poll the serial port, looking for the other machine. If you just run it on one machine it will sit there waiting for a connection from the other machine. So until you get the null modem cable you really can't test it other than just to see that it loads successfully.
Rating : Fast and detailed

FUQuestion : Oh yes, forgot to tell you how they connected.

For the connection between them. I jwould like them to have a one to one connection. As the old machine don't have the capability to do real networking.
The available port for the macine are one parallel and one serial port.

FUQuestion : Hi pauldoherty,

Since I am waiting for the new computer to be connected, I try to install Xport to the Window 3.1 machine. Now, I found a problem. For this project, it should be run the experiment program and transmitting the data at the same time. Is it possible on Window 3.1? Or can I build a newtwork to solve the problem?

Thank you very much

Need More Information : Are both machines equipped with ethernet cards and on the same network (LAN)?

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